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An abacus is a mechanical calculating device that has been used for centuries to perform mathematical calculations. It consists of a series of rods or wires, each containing a set of movable beads or counters. The rods are arranged vertically or horizontally, and each represents a different place value, such as units, tens, hundreds, and so on.

The abacus is primarily used for basic arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. By moving the beads along the rods, users can represent and manipulate numbers. The position of the beads on the rods determines their value within the number system being used.

The exact origins of the abacus are unclear, but it is believed to have been developed in ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt around 2000 BCE. It spread to various parts of the world, including China, Japan, India, and Europe, where it underwent further refinement and adaptation.

Vedic math

Vedic mathematics is a system of mathematical techniques and principles that originated in ancient India. It is based on the Vedas, which are ancient Hindu scriptures. Vedic math provides alternative approaches and shortcuts to solve complex mathematical problems quickly and efficiently.

The origins of Vedic mathematics can be traced back to the Atharva Veda, one of the four sacred texts of Hinduism. However, the principles of Vedic math were organized and presented in a systematic manner by Bharati Krishna Tirthaji, a Hindu scholar, in the early 20th century.


Visual Learning: Drawing allows students to visually represent concepts, ideas, and information. It can be a powerful tool for visual learners who understand and retain information better through visual cues. Drawing diagrams, charts, or illustrations can help students grasp complex topics and remember them more effectively.

Engagement and Focus: Engaging in drawing activities during class can help students stay focused and attentive. It provides an outlet for their creativity and allows them to actively participate in the learning process. Drawing can make the class more interactive and enjoyable, leading to increased engagement and participation.

Charcoal painting

Versatility and Expressiveness: Charcoal is a versatile medium that allows for a wide range of artistic styles and techniques. It can be used to create bold, dramatic contrasts, subtle shading, or expressive, gestural marks. Students can experiment with different textures, strokes, and tonal values to convey their artistic vision.

Observational Skills: Charcoal painting encourages students to observe and closely study their subjects. It helps develop their ability to see and capture the nuances of light and shadow, textures, and proportions. Working with charcoal encourages students to pay attention to details and make careful observations, which can enhance their overall artistic skills.

Handwriting Improvement

Legibility: Having legible handwriting is crucial for effective communication. It allows others, including teachers, classmates, and future employers, to read and understand your work easily. Improved handwriting ensures that your ideas and thoughts are accurately conveyed on paper.

Academic Performance: Neat and well-organized handwriting can positively impact academic performance. When teachers can easily read and understand your work, they can assess your knowledge and provide appropriate feedback. Clear handwriting also helps in note-taking during lectures, making it easier to review and study later.

Self-Confidence: Improving handwriting can boost self-confidence. When students see their writing becoming neater and more legible, they feel a sense of accomplishment. Increased confidence in handwriting spills over into other areas, fostering a positive attitude towards academic tasks.